Tuesday, 10 May 2011
CASE 286 - The History of the United Arab Emirates
Official name for United Arab Emirates is United Arab Emirates. National song (anthem) of United Arab Emirates is 'Ishy Bilady'. Area of United Arab Emirates is 83600 square km. You can pay with United Arab Emirates dirham in United Arab Emirates. Almost all Internet pages from United Arab Emirates are registered under 'dot ae' Internet domain. The capital city of United Arab Emirates is Abu Dhabi.
The U.A.E. was formed from the group of tribally organized Arabian Peninsula sheikhdoms along the southern coast of the Persian Gulf and the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Oman. For centuries, the sheikhdoms were embroiled in dynastic disputes. It became known as the Pirate Coast as raiders based there harassed foreign shipping, despite both European and Arab navies patrolling the area from the 17th to the 19th century. Early British expeditions to protect India trade from raiders at Ras al-Khaimah led to campaigns against other harbors along the coast in 1819. The next year, a general peace treaty was signed to which all the principal sheikhs of the coast adhered. Raids continued intermittently until 1835, when the sheikhs agreed not to engage in hostilities at sea. In 1853, they signed a treaty with the United Kingdom, under which the sheikhs (the "Trucial Sheikhdoms") agreed to a "perpetual maritime truce." It was enforced by the United Kingdom, and disputes among sheikhs were referred to the Political Resident, a British civil servant, for settlement.
Primarily in reaction to the ambitions of other European countries, the United Kingdom and the Trucial Sheikhdoms established closer bonds in an 1892 treaty, similar to treaties entered into by the U.K. with other Gulf principalities. The sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the United Kingdom and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the United Kingdom without its consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and assist the Sheikhs in the case of land attack.
In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter's dispute with Saudi Arabia over the Buraimi Oasis and other territory to the south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia almost settled their border dispute, but the agreement was never ratified by the U.A.E. Government. The border with Oman also remains officially unsettled, although the two governments agreed to delineate the border in May 1999.
In 1968, the U.K. announced its decision to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms which had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. The nine attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid-1971 they were unable to agree on terms of union. Bahrain became independent in August and Qatar in September, 1971. When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on December 1, 1971, they became fully independent. On December 2, 1971, six of them entered into a union called the United Arab Emirates. The seventh, Ras al-Khaimah, joined in early 1972. Abu Dhabi’s ruler, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan al Nahyan was elected by the Supreme Council as President and Dubai’s ruler, Sheikh Rashid bin Said al Maktoum, became Prime Minister.
The U.A.E. sent forces to help liberate Kuwait during the 1990-91 Gulf War. U.A.E. troops have also participated in peacekeeping missions to Lebanon, Somalia, Bosnia, Albania, Kosovo, and Afghanistan.
In 2004, the U.A.E.'s first and only president until that time, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, died. His eldest son and Crown Prince, Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, succeeded him as Ruler of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the Constitution, the U.A.E.'s Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan as U.A.E. Federal President. Mohammed bin Zayed al Nahyan succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. In January 2006, Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, U.A.E. Vice President and Prime Minister and Ruler of Dubai, passed away and was replaced by his brother, Sheikh Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum.