Monday, 6 December 2010
CASE 199 - Passports, birth certificates, NI, ID's
Passports, birth certificates, NI and ID's are just a few of the ways in which we as humans now days can prove who we are at any given time around the world for different situations, but many people like myself find them a hassle to apply for, expensive in some cases and degrading. As we move further on in time these systems of identity proof get more complex, more secure, more expensive and more of them in all places such as work school, airports, shopping centers and many others. In the next 10 years I and many believe that there will come a point in time where you won't be able to buy food, cloths or rent, buy or lease a house and many other aspects of life we take for granted without having you're retiner, finger prints or ID scanned so you can proceed with you're purchasing. Is all of the over protectiveness from our governments real, worth it or is it all false and a plan to eliminate money in a form of paper and coins and just be within computer systems and to have total control of every human being in every way possible...?
Also please check out CASE 139 - RDIF Microchips
A passport is a document, issued by a national government, which certifies, for the purpose of international travel, the identity and nationality of its holder. The elements of identity are name, date of birth, sex, and place of birth. Most often, nationality and citizenship are congruent. A passport does not of itself entitle the passport holder entry into another country, nor to consular protection while abroad or any other privileges. It does, however, normally entitle the passport holder to return to the country that issued the passport. Rights to consular protection arise from international agreements, and the right to return arises from the laws of the issuing country. A passport does not represent the right or the place of residence of the passport holder in the country that issued the passport.
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child. The term "birth certificate" can refer to either the original document or a certified copy of or representation of the original record of birth.
The documentation of births is a practice widely held throughout human civilization, especially in China, Egypt, Greece, Rome, and Persia. The original purpose of birth registration was for tax purposes and for the determination of available military manpower. Births were initially registered with churches, who maintained registers of births. This practice continued into the 19th century. The compulsory registration of births with governmental agencies is a practice that originated in the United Kingdom in 1853. Most countries have statutes and laws that regulate the registration of births. In all countries, it is the responsibility of the mother's physician, midwife, hospital administrator, or the parents of the child to see that the birth is properly registered with the appropriate government agency.
The actual record of birth is stored with a government agency. That agency will issue certified copies or representations of the original birth record upon request, which can be used to apply for government benefits, such as passports. The certification is signed and/or sealed by the registrar or other custodian of birth records, who is commissioned by the government.
The right of every child to a name and nationality, and the responsibility of national governments to achieve this are contained in Articles 7 and 8 in the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child: “All children have the right to a legally registered name, and nationality” (CRC Article 7) and "Governments should respect children's right to a name, a nationality and family ties” (CRC Article 8). Despite 191 countries ratifying the Convention, the births of millions of children worldwide go unregistered. By their very nature, data concerning unregistered children are approximate; however, it was estimated in 2008 that 51 million babies – more than two fifths of those born worldwide – were not registered at birth. Birth registration opens the door to rights to children and adults which many other human beings take for granted: to prove their age; to prove their nationality; to receive healthcare; to go to school; to take exams; to be adopted; to protection from under-age military service or conscription; to marry; open a bank account; to hold a driving licence; to obtain a passport; to inherit money or property; and to vote or stand for elected office.
There are many reasons why births go unregistered, including social and cultural beliefs and attitudes; alternative documents and naming ceremonies; remote areas, poor infrastructure; economic barriers; lack of office staff, equipment and training; legal and political restrictions; fear of discrimination and persecution; war, conflict and unrest or simply the fact that there is no system in place. Retrospective registration may be necessary where there is a backlog of children whose births have gone unregistered. In Senegal, the government is facilitating retrospective registration through free local court hearings and the number of unregistered children has fallen considerably as a result. In Sierra Leone, the government gave the National Office of Births and Deaths special permission to issue birth certificates to children over seven. In Bolivia, there was a successful three-year amnesty for the free registration of young people aged between 12 and 18. Statelessness, or the lack of effective nationality, impacts the daily lives of some 11-12 million people around the world. Perhaps those who suffer most are stateless infants, children, and youth. Though born and raised in their parents’ country of habitual residence, they lack formal recognition of their existence.
"If there is national insurance, why does any other insurance exist...? You would think it covers you on a national scale within the country you have you're national insurance" - John Harris
National Insurance (NI) in the United Kingdom was initially a contributory system of insurance against illness and unemployment, and later also provided retirement pensions and other benefits. It was first introduced by the National Insurance Act 1911, and expanded by the government of Clement Attlee in 1946. The contributions component of the system consists of voluntary contributions, National Insurance Contributions (NICs), paid by employees and employers on earnings, and by employers on certain benefits-in-kind provided to employees. The self-employed contribute based upon net earnings. The benefit component comprises a number of contributory benefits of availability and amount determined by the claimant's contribution record. Weekly income benefits and some lump-sum benefits to participants upon death, retirement, unemployment, maternity and disability are provided.