Sunday, 14 November 2010
CASE 178 - Alcohol - manufactured poison sold everywhere
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, usually connected to other carbon or hydrogen atoms.
An important class are the simple acyclic alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH. Of those, ethanol (C2H5OH) is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, and in common speech the word alcohol refers specifically to ethanol.
Other alcohols are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or wood alcohol (methyl alcohol, or methanol). The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all substances where the hydroxyl group is the functional group with the highest priority; in substances where a higher priority group is present the prefix hydroxy- will appear in the IUPAC name. The suffix -ol in non-systematic names (such as paracetamol or cholesterol) also typically indicates that the substance includes a hydroxyl functional group and so can be termed an alcohol, but many substances (such as citric acid, lactic acid or sucrose) contain one or more hydroxyl functional groups without using the suffix.
Grown in nearly every country, then sent for fermentation by using glucose produced from sugar from the hydrolysis of starch, in the presence of yeast and temperature of less than 37°C to produce ethanol. For instance the conversion of invertase to glucose and fructose or the conversion of glucose to zymase and ethanol. By direct hydration using ethylene (ethylene hydration) or other alkenes from cracking of fractions of distilled crude oil. Ethanol in alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons. The consumption of large doses of ethanol causes drunkenness (intoxication), which may lead to a hangover as its effects wear off. Depending upon the dose and the regularity of its consumption, ethanol can cause acute respiratory failure or death. Because ethanol impairs judgment in humans, it can be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior. The LD50 of ethanol in rats is 10.3 g/kg. Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized and partly because their metabolism produces substances that are even more toxic. Methanol (wood alcohol), for instance, is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to the poisonous formic acid in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes respectively; accumulation of formic acid can lead to blindness or death. Similarly poisoning due to other alcohols such as ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol are due to their metabolites which are also produced by alcohol dehydrogenase. An effective treatment to prevent toxicity after methanol or ethylene glycol ingestion is to administer ethanol. Alcohol dehydrogenase has a higher affinity for ethanol, thus preventing methanol from binding and acting as a substrate. Any remaining methanol will then have time to be excreted through the kidneys. Methanol itself, while poisonous, has a much weaker sedative effect than ethanol. Some longer-chain alcohols such as n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, t-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol do however have stronger sedative effects, but also have higher toxicity than ethanol. These longer chain alcohols are found as contaminants in some alcoholic beverages and are known as fusel alcohols,and are reputed to cause severe hangovers although it is unclear if the fusel alcohols are actually responsible. Many longer chain alcohols are used in industry as solvents and are occasionally abused by alcoholics, leading to a range of adverse health effects.
Will admit I probably drink once or twice a month, when I do its fun or blocks out the pain from life, I can even go out clubbing without drinking quiet easily, but for others I understand it isn't. Im positive that naturally grown and produced alcohol with a controlled amount consumed its no harm really for us humans, its the mass producing, sticking them in tin cans with chemicals or strong shots on a daily intake is very healthy and not good, but they seem to be stacked high in every corner shop, almost across the world.