Monday, 1 November 2010

CASE 137 - The History of Ireland & the Fenian brotherhood

History of Ireland

The first known settlement in Ireland began around 8000 BC, when hunter-gatherers arrived from continental Europe, probably via a land bridge. Few archaeological traces remain of this group, but their descendants and later Neolithic arrivals, particularly from the Iberian Peninsula, were responsible for major Neolithic sites such as Newgrange, there is stories and historical sites proving that the ancient egyptians went to Ireland many times, which is why there are dark skin Irish people, the fair hair and skinned people came from Scandinavia. On the arrival of Saint Patrick and other Christian missionaries in the early to mid-5th century AD, Christianity began to subsume the indigenous Celtic religion, a process that was completed by the year 600.
From around AD 800, more than a century of Viking invasions brought havoc upon the monastic culture and on the island's various regional dynasties, yet both of these institutions proved strong enough to survive and assimilate the invaders. The coming of Cambro-Norman mercenaries under Richard de Clare, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, nicknamed Strongbow, in 1169 marked the beginning of more than 700 years of direct Norman and, later, English involvement in Ireland. The English crown did not begin asserting full control of the island until after the English Reformation, when questions over the loyalty of Irish vassals provided the initial impetus for a series of military campaigns between 1534 and 1691. This period was also marked by an English policy of plantation which led to the arrival of thousands of English and Scottish Protestant settlers. As the military and political defeat of Gaelic Ireland became more clear in the early seventeenth century, the role of religion as a new division in Ireland became more pronounced. From this period on, sectarian conflict became a recurrent theme in Irish history.
The overthrow, in 1613, of the Catholic majority in the Irish parliament was realised principally through the creation of numerous new boroughs, all of which were Protestant-dominated. By the end of the seventeenth century all Catholics, representing some 85% of Ireland's population then, were banned from the Irish parliament. Political power rested entirely in the hands of an Anglo settler-colonial, and more specifically the state church (Church of Ireland) minority, while the Catholic and some Protestant denominations suffered severe political and economic privations. In 1801, the Irish Parliament was abolished and Ireland became an integral part of a new United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Act of Union. Catholics were still banned from sitting in that new parliament until Catholic Emancipation was attained in 1829, the principal condition of which was the removal of the poorer, and thus more radical, Irish freeholders from the franchise.
The Irish Parliamentary Party strove from the 1880s to attain Home Rule self-government through the parliamentary constitutional movement eventually winning the Home Rule Act 1914, though it was suspended on the outbreak of World War I.
In 1922, after the Irish War of Independence and the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the larger part of Ireland seceded from the United Kingdom (UK) to become the independent Irish Free State — and after 1948 the republic, Ireland. The six north eastern counties, known as Northern Ireland, remained within the United Kingdom. The Irish Civil War followed. The history of Northern Ireland has since been dominated by sporadic sectarian conflict between (mainly Catholic) Nationalists and (mainly Protestant) Unionists. This conflict erupted into the Troubles in the late 1960s, until an uneasy peace thirty years later.

The Arrival of the Celts:
As the Bronze Age in Ireland drew to a close, there appeared in Ireland a new cultural influence. Developing in the Alps of central Europe, the Celts spread their culture across modern-day Germany and France and into the Balkans as far as Turkey. They arrived in Britain and Ireland around 500BC and within a few hundred years, Ireland's Bronze Age culture had all but disappeared, and Celtic culture was in place across the entire island.

The Celts had one major advantage - they had discovered Iron. Iron had been introduced to the Celtic peoples in Europe around 1000 to 700BC, thus giving them the technological edge to spread as they did. Iron was a far superior metal to bronze, being stronger and more durable. On the other hand, it required much hotter fires to extract it from its ore and so it took a fair degree of skill to use iron. None of this is to be taken to mean that bronze fell out of use. Rather, iron simply became an alternative metal and many bronze objects have been found that were made in the Iron Age.

Fenian movement was a secret Irish organization

One vehicle for the Irish strand of the world-revolution was the Irish Brotherhood or the fenians, later the United Irishmen, founded by the Freemasons, Wolfe Tone and Napper Tandy in 1791 through a front of Gaven Duffy, Michael Doheny and William Smith-O´Brien. The writer and researcher of the eighteenth and early nineteenth century, Robert Clifford, said that the Irish revolutionary network maintained contacts with similar international movements through the Illuminist Jacobin Club in Paris (a force behind the French Revolution), the Revolutionary Society in England, and the Scottish Committee of Reform. The Fenian Society, later the Irish Republican Brotherhood, was formed between 1857 and 1858 under the guidance of James Stephens who, from the start, saw this Brotherhood as a part of the much wider European revolutionary movement. Fenians travelled to Paris to study the methods of the Carbonari, the Italian Elite-Brotherhood network, very closely connected to the Black Nobility. In 1865, the Fenians joined the secret society network under Karl Marx known as the International Working Mens' Association and founded the Irish Brotherhood in London on September 28th 1864, which, with help from the American Fenian Brotherhood, was not primarily designed to win democracy, freedom and justice for the Irish people. It was created to exploit their thoroughly understandable sense of injustice to further the world (Elite) revolution. Marx saw Ireland as an important weapon to undermine England and it has been used that way ever since with the Irish people as the pawns of the manipulators on both 'sides'. In those parts where the whole population was Catholic, hand bills were distributed, purporting to be the Constitution of the Orange Men, which was death and destruction to every Catholic;

for, if the common people could once be stirred up to rebellion, it was easy to turn their minds against government as the centre of the Orange Men." Meanwhile, you say something similar to the Protestants about the Catholic leaders and, bingo, you have the horror of Ireland throughout the twentieth century. It is classic modified Hegelianism or, you might also say, Kissingerism or Harrimanism. The secret society network in Ireland is phenomenal for such a small population and it is this which led to the creation of Sinn Fein in 1905, the political wing of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). This network is, in
turn, connected to the web controlled by the Global Elite and it is through this that the well-documented links between the IRA and other terrorist groups have been coordinated.

The New Covenant Times said in its January/March 1994 edition, that the loyalist paramilitary movement was deliberately backed by an MI5 operation called "Tara" with the intention of creating so much violence and tit-for-tat murder by both the IRA and Protestant loyalist paramilitary, that the UK Parliament would agree to allow Northern Ireland to be absorbed into the Republic of Ireland.

The Easter Rebellion and the Road to an Independent Ireland

On April 24th 1916 on Easter Monday, an armed uprising known as the ‘Easter Rebellion’ began in Dublin, Ireland against British rule. Patrick Pearse led the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret organisation of Irish nationalists, along with militant Irish socialists lead by James Connolly in rioting and attacking government buildings across the city and succeeded in seizing the General Post Office.
On April 24th 1916 on Easter Monday, an armed uprising known as the ‘Easter Rebellion’ began in Dublin, Ireland against British rule. Patrick Pearse led the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret organisation of Irish nationalists, along with militant Irish socialists lead by James Connolly in rioting and attacking government buildings across the city and succeeded in seizing the General Post Office.

They proclaimed Ireland as an independent country and by the following morning had gained control of much of the capital. Later that day, the British government responded and by the 29th April, had crushed the rebellion. Pearse along with fourteen other leaders of the movement were executed and held up as martyrs for the Irish cause and although the revolt they started was crushed, it is seen by many as a significant step on the road to independent Ireland.

British rule had been hated in Ireland for centuries; Oliver Cromwell massacred people in their thousands to suppress the Irish in the 17th century, harsh anti-Catholic restrictions were put in place known as the ‘Penal Laws’ in the 18th century and 1.5 million Irish people were allowed to starve in the Potato Famine of 1845 – 1848, to name just a few of the crimes committed against the Irish people.

Riots and armed protest continued after the Easter Rebellion and in 1921, the British government backed down and twenty-six of the thirty-two counties gained independence with the declaration of the Irish Free State. The Free State became an independent republic in 1949, however the struggle continued for independence in the six remaining counties under British rule in Northern Ireland, leading some nationalists to reorganised and found the Irish Republican Party or IRA.

From the 1960s, problems in Northern Ireland increased with civil rest between Catholics and Protestants which escalated as the Catholic IRA became more and more involved in battles against British troops. A campaign of terrorist bombings in England took place until peace talks began in the mid 1990s.

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