Saturday, 11 September 2010

CASE 045 - Human Evolution and Migration


Illustrated with historical, archaeological and scientific records. Pre Zinjanthropus and Zinjanthropus Homo Habilis, Tanganyika, East Africa July 17th 1959. It was unearthed by Dr M & L Leakey in Olduvai Gorge. They were among the tool-making hominids. Man's most possible prehistoric ancestor to date. Rated at 1.8 million years old by the University of California new potassium-argon method test. The specimen that led to the naming of this species (OH 7) was discovered in 1960, by the Leakey team in Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania. Louis Leakey was convinced that this was the Olduvai toolmaker he had spent his life looking for, and placed this as a direct human ancestor, with Homo Erectus a dead-end side-branch. The specimen was subjected to intense study by the multidisciplinary team of Louis Leakey, John Napier, and Phillip Tobias. hey placed the material as different from pen contemporary australopithecines due to the teeth, which fell outside the known range of Australopithecine Africanus, with very large incisors. Also, the large brain size and shape of the hand suggested a closer affinity with Homo. In January 1964, the team announced the new species Homo habilis. Raymond Dart, and means "handy man, " in reference to this hominids supposed tool-making prowess, suggested the name. Illustrated with historical, archaeological and scientific records. By around 1,500,000 BCE Some of our ancestors migrated inland into East and Central Africa, as well as South East African coast. By around 800,000 BCE Some of our ancestors in East and Central Africa, migrated further inland into West Africa, as well as both South West African and South African coast. Some of them went on to colonize Northern cost of Africa via Morocco.
The evidence was attributed to the skulls of Atlantropus (450,000 BCE) found in Morocco and Algeria. They survived mainly on seafood.0.5 Million Years Lope Garbon West Africa an ongoing research
In the year 1999, an astonishing discovery was made in a small clearing in the middle of the tropical forest of Lope in Garbon. A French archaeologist discovered artefacts dating back to half a million years. Some of these artefacts consisted of paintings depicting how the people hunted wild animals using nets made from rope trees to trap them. In addition over 100 different kind of pottery were discovered suggesting there were many different tribes living harmoniously together.

 80,000 years ago, a group of approximately 250 people undertook a single exodus via the southern route, according to (Dr Steven Oppenheimer) of Oxford University, his evidence? Genetic tracking of Mitochondria D.N.A., shows that only one line of humans came out of Africa (same oppenheimers who are part of the top 13 families). Climate maps and sea level charts that shows that the Northern route of Africa was impassable around this time, but the sea level was low enough to make travelling from Africa to Yemen more feasible.

 Following the single exodus to Yemen, our ancestors dispersed to colonize other part of the world. Some group stayed within the region, others moved east. In Malaysia traces of ash-dating back to the great Mount Toba eruption in Sumatra 74,000 years ago, wee found on stone tools left by modern humans in Kota Tampra, a wooded valley near Penang. Anthropologist Zuraima Majidr director of the centre for archaeological research Malaysia discovered this evidence.

Australian Aborigines have a number of unique genetic lines that leads straight back to the first modern human to survive outside of Africa. The first group arrived 70,000 years ago and left cave paintings showing creatures from a vanished world dated 61,000 BCE. In addition to this were the rock paintings of Nigeria West Africa and Namibia South West Africa about 60,000 BCE.

Nigeria And Chad
In parts of Nigeria And Chad, archaeologists have found stone tools that are 40,000 years old. Human skeletons, rock paintings, and other remains of prehistoric settlements have also been found, dating back to about 150,000 years.

Middle Eastern Countries 50,000
En route to Australia from Africa our ancestors left behind colonies that made their own journey further to the east. One group moved from Asia to China and beyond while another went west from India to Himalayans. Others went onto the vast Asia steppes while the remaining colonies went to Arabian Gulf. Hence the creation of the Middle Eastern Countries, Syria, Levant, Turkey, The Balkans and Europe.

Ngwenya Culture
About 45,000 years ago some our ancestors still in East and Central Africa moved further south. They established the first iron mine called Ngwenya Iron Mine in Swaziland South African. Mr Adrian Boshier field research officer for the Museum of Man and Science in Johannesburg South African discovered this evidence. Which was also supported by Carbon Dating and article publication in the New York Times on 8th of February 1970.
About 35,000 years ago, some our ancestors who are well established in South and Central Africa began to express their artistic prowess. The evidence is from the elegance of prehistoric African art unearthed in southern Africa, presently located in the Pretoria Museum, approximately 30,000 years old. Cut by flint stone tools by prehistoric indigenous Africans. In addition was the reconstruction of a stone age African skull-cast, such African lived during the same period as the artist who made the original cast about 30,000 BCE. To illustrate the Africans artistic prowess further here are quotations: "Grimaldi 10,000 BCE," (indigenous South African) "sculptor in Monomotapa," (South Africa) "carved the first known statue of a human body." "Europeans misnamed it, "Venus Of Willendorf," it was confiscated from Africa and place in the Museum of Vienna, Austria in Europe."

Bearing Strait
About 20,000 years ago our ancestors in India, South-east Asia, China, Mongolia and Siberia, Cross the Bearing Strait. This route remain impassable for another 8,000 years

Meadowcroft USA 16,000 BCE
On the Ohio River in Pennsylvania, the Meadowcroft rock shelter settlement site holds key archaeological clues to American ancestry. Meadowcroft is the oldest American sites. The Meadowcroft site contains artefacts dating to around 16,000 BCE. Some of the artefacts from Meadowcroft bore concise similarities to those discovered in China about 28,000 BCE. The evidence from Meadowcroft and other American sites suggests that humans did not migrate to North America via one route as previously thought. That population bearing different genetic lines appeared to have entered North America through different routes and times, from Central Asia, China, Malaysia, Japan and Siberia.

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